Genetic algorithm are the algorithm to solve optimization problem like TSP(traveling salesman problem)

Here in this post we will see the logic, how it works

Genetic Algo Logic:

  1. [Start] Generate random population of n chromosomes (suitable solutions for the problem)
  2. [Fitness] Evaluate the fitness f(x) of each chromosome x in the population
  3. [New population] Create a new population by repeating following steps until the new population is complete
    1. [Selection] Select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness (the better fitness, the bigger chance to be selected)
    2. [Crossover] With a crossover probability cross over the parents to form a new offspring (children). If no crossover was performed, offspring is an exact copy of parents.
    3. [Mutation] With a mutation probability mutate new offspring at each locus (position in chromosome).
    4. [Accepting] Place new offspring in a new population
  4. [Replace] Use new generated population for a further run of algorithm
  5. [Test] If the end condition is satisfied, stop, and return the best solution in current population
  6. [Loop] Go to step 2

the terms like crossover and mutation etc are new , so definitions and introduction of genetic algorithm

Genetic algorithms are a part of evolutionary computing.


All living organisms consist of cells. In each cell there is the same set of chromosomes. Chromosomes are strings of DNA and serves as a model for the whole organism. A chromosome consist of genes, blocks of DNA. Each gene encodes a particular protein. Basically can be said, that each gene encodes a trait, for example color of eyes.


During reproduction, first occurs recombination (or crossover). Genes from parents form in some way the whole new chromosome. The new created offspring can then be mutated. Mutation means, that the elements of DNA are a bit changed. This changes are mainly caused by errors in copying genes from parents.The fitness of an organism is measured by success of the organism in its life.


After we have decided what encoding we will use, we can make a step to crossover. Crossover selects genes from parent chromosomes and creates a new offspring. The simplest way how to do this is to choose randomly some crossover point and everything before this point point copy from a first parent and then everything after a crossover point copy from the second parent.

Crossover can then look like this ( | is the crossover point):

Chromosome 1 11011 | 00100110110
Chromosome 2 11011 | 11000011110
Offspring 1 11011 | 11000011110
Offspring 2 11011 | 00100110110

There are other ways how to make crossover, for example we can choose more crossover points. Crossover can be rather complicated and very depends on encoding of the encoding of chromosome. Specific crossover made for a specific problem can improve performance of the genetic algorithm.


After a crossover is performed, mutation take place. This is to prevent falling all solutions in population into a local optimum of solved problem. Mutation changes randomly the new offspring. For binary encoding we can switch a few randomly chosen bits from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1. Mutation can then be following:

Original offspring 1 1101111000011110
Original offspring 2 1101100100110110
Mutated offspring 1 1100111000011110
Mutated offspring 2 1101101100110110

The mutation depends on the encoding as well as the crossover. For example when we are encoding permutations, mutation could be exchanging two genes.